What is the European Language Monitor (ELM)?
ELM gives you an overview of language legislation and language
planning in Europe. How many countries have a language law? What
languages are used as language of instruction in higher education?
What languages are used on company websites, and which countries have
specific programs to support language technology for their languages?
You can browse and compare language laws, find information about the
status of minority languages, the use of languages in the media and
the use of language technology in many European countries. The main
focus is on official regulations and their implementation. We have
taken great care to provide comments, quotes, links and translations
of legislation wherever possible. The data for ELM is collected every
4 years since 2009. The current version, ELM 4, is based on data
collected in 2017-2018.
How to use ELM?
Warning: we are aware of the technical problem with the display of large queries.
- Click the Select data tab and select questions and countries. You may select as many as you like
or all countries and questions at once.
- Select comments after each question if you want to see comments,
quotes, references, links and translations of the relevant
- Presentation Country/Question toggles the vertical or horizontal presentation of the data.
- Select Submit or press the Enter key on your keyboard to start the search with the selected search criteria.
- Use the Go back button in your browser or the Alt + Left arrow keys on your keyboard to go back
and modify your search criteria.
- Click on Select data to start from scratch.
- You can also use Search to search the whole database for a relevant
term, e.g. German, Danish or university, to see where it is
- You can copy maps and quantitative data directly from the web page with crtl-c and insert them into a spreadsheet.
Note, however, that there may be problems with data consisting of multiple text blocks,
as they contain extra line feeds.
What can you find in ELM 4?
ELM 4 is based on a questionnaire which has been filled out by the
official institutions of language of each country associated in the
European Federation for Institutions of National Languages (EFNIL).
The answers contain quantitative and qualitative data such as quotes
from legislative texts and other texts in the original language and
their translation into English.
ELM 4 contains answers from 22 countries to questions on 9 main topics:
- General questions about each country and its languages
- Specific legal regulations
- Instruction in and use of languages in primary and secondary education
- Instruction in and use of languages at university level
- Dissemination of official languages abroad
- Language organisations
- Language technology
Please note the following:
Some questions are not applicable to countries in which English is an
official language. Some questions must be interpreted in a specific way
for countries that are federations. If exact data or figures are not
available, estimates are given and the sources are quoted. It is
indicated where an answer is based on personal information or whether
it constitutes a general estimate.
The following countries have not yet submitted data to ELM: Italy,
Spain, France, Malta , Rumania and Cyprus.
We are constantly trying to improve ELM. Your feed-back means a lot to us.
What you think about the European Language Monitor?
Do you have suggestions for improvements?
Have you discovered a mistake?
Please let us know.